Dangers of Dieting: Why Dieting Can Be Harmful
BY: Anna Guerdjikova, PhD, LISW, CCRC, Lindner Center of HOPE, Director of Administrative Services, Harold C. Schott Foundation Eating Disorders Program University of Cincinnati, Department of Psychiatry, Research Assistant Professor
An estimated 45 million Americans diet each year and spend $33 billion annually on weight loss products. WebMD lists over 100 different diets, starting with the African Mango diet, moving on to the South Beach and Mediterranean diets and ending up with the Zone. Most diets, regardless of their particular nature, result in short-term weight loss that is not sustainable. Weight cycling or recurrent weight loss through dieting and subsequent weight gain (yo-yo effect) can be harmful for mental and physical health for both healthy weight and overweight individuals. Furthermore, weight fluctuations have been related to increased risk of development of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and high blood pressure.
What is Dieting
The word “diet” originates from the Greek word “diaita”, literally meaning “manner of living”. In the contemporary language, dieting is synonymous with a quick fix solution for an overwhelming obesity epidemic. Dieting implies restriction, limitation of pleasurable foods and drinks, and despite of having no benefits, the omnipresent dieting mentality remains to be the norm.
Most diets fail most of the time. Repeated diet failure is a negative predictor for successful long term weight loss. Chronic dieters consistently report guilt and self-blame, irritability, anxiety and depression, difficulty concentrating and fatigue. Their self-esteem is decreased by continuous feelings of failure related to “messing my diet up again”, leading to feelings of lack of control over one’s food choices and further … life in general. Dieting can be particularly problematic in adolescents and it remains a major precursor to disordered eating, with moderate dieters being five times more likely to develop an eating disorder than those who do not diet at all.
Diets imply restriction. Psychologically, dietary restraint can lead to greater reactivity to food cues, increased cravings and disinhibition, and overeating and binge eating. Biologically, dieting can lead to unhealthy changes in body composition, hormonal changes, reduced bone density, menstrual disturbances, and lower resting energy expenditure.
The Potential Harmful Effects of Dieting
Aggressive dieting lowers the base metabolic rate, meaning one burns less energy when resting, resulting in significantly lower daily needs in order to sustain achieved weight after the diet is over. Returning to normalized eating habits at this lower base metabolic rate results in commonly seen post dieting weight gain. Biologically, dieting is perceived as harmful and physiology readjusts trying to get back to initial weight even after years since the initial rapid weight loss. Recent data examining 14 participants in the “Biggest Loser” contest showed they lost on average 128 pounds and their baseline resting metabolic rates dropped from 2,607 +/-649 kilocalories/ day to 1,996 +/- 358 kcal/day at the end of the 30 weeks contest. Those that lost the most weight saw the biggest drops in their metabolic rate. Six years after the show, only one of the 14 contestants weighed less than they did after the competition; five contestants regained almost all of or more than the weight they lost, but despite the weight gain, their metabolic rates stayed low, with a mean of 1,903 +/- 466 kcal/day. Proportional to their individual weights the contestants were burning a mean of ~500 fewer kilocalories a day than would be expected of people their sizes leading to steady weight gain over the years. Metabolic adaptation related to rapid weight loss thus persisted over time suggesting a proportional, but incomplete, response to contemporaneous efforts to reduce body weight from its defined “set point”.
Dieting emphasizes food as “good” or “bad”, as a reward or punishment, and increases food obsessions. It does not teach healthy eating habits and rarely focuses on the nutritional value of foods and the benefit of regulated eating. Unsatisfied hunger increases mood swings and risk of overeating. Restricting food, despite drinking enough fluids, can leads to dehydration and further complications, like constipation. Dieting and chronic hunger tend to exacerbate dysfunctional behaviors like smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol.
Complex entities like health and wellness cannot be reduced to the one isolated number of what we weigh or to what body mass index (BMI) is. Purpose and worth cannot be measured in weight. Dieting mentality tempts us into “If I am thin- I will be happy” or “If I am not thin-I am a failure” way of thinking but only provides a short term fictitious solution with long term harmful physical and mental consequences. Focusing on sustainable long term strategies for implementing regulated eating habits with a variety of food choices without unnecessary restrictions will make a comprehensive diet and maintaining healthy weight a true part of our “manner of living”.
Reference: Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 May ;Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition.; Fothergill E, Guo J, Howard L, Kerns JC, Knuth ND, Brychta R, Chen KY, Skarulis MC, Walter M, Walter PJ, Hall KD.
Good Food for Great Mood
Nutritional Psychiatry and Wellness
By Anna I. Guerdjikova, PhD, LISW, CCRC
Director of Administrative Services, Harold C. Schott Foundation Eating Disorders Program
The connection between health in general and the foods we consume has been known since the dawn of human kind, and Hippocrates is credited with the “Let food be thy medicine” saying. The narrower connection between overall diet quality and common mental disorders, in particular depression and anxiety, is a much newer field and the term “nutritional psychiatry” was not coined until the most recent decade. Initially, the focus of this discipline was on researching single foods or nutrients and their role in mental health. Gradually, it has been recognized that proper nutrition for good mental health is a very complex landscape. What we consume and how it affects us cannot be researched in isolation and what we eat in excess can be as important as what we do not eat enough of.
The growing data in the field of nutritional psychiatry is encouraging. A recent systematic literature review derived a list of antidepressant nutrients linked to the treatment and prevention of depression1. The twelve identified antidepressant nutrients included: folate, iron, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, potassium, selenium, thiamine, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and zinc. The most nutrient-dense individual animal foods to fight depression were oysters, mussels and seafood, all rich in DHA which helps form strong membranes that easily transport nutrients into brain cells, lowers inflammation and raises serotonin levels. From plant-based foods leafy greens, lettuces, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables received the highest score, suggesting that regularly incorporating those veggies in one’s diet might improve mood dysregulation.
Another study followed up with patients for 12 weeks in a randomized controlled design study to examine efficacy of adjunctive dietary intervention in the treatment of moderate to severe depression2. The intervention consisted of seven individual nutritional sessions to support adherence to the recommended diet, encouraging consumption of the following key food groups: whole grains (5–8 servings per day); vegetables (6 per day); fruit (3 per day), legumes (3–4 per week); low-fat and unsweetened dairy foods (2–3 per day); raw and unsalted nuts (1 per day); fish (at least 2 per week); lean red meats (3–4 per week),chicken (2–3 per week); eggs (up to 6 per week); and olive oil (3 tablespoons per day), while reducing sweets, refined cereals, fried food, fast-food, processed meats and sugary drinks (no more than 3 per week). The group receiving dietary support along with therapy or medication, showed significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms suggesting dietary improvement may provide an efficacious and accessible treatment strategy for the management of depression.
A recent review summarized data from 20 longitudinal and 21 cross-sectional studies and concluded that adhering to a healthy diet, in particular a traditional Mediterranean diet (meals built around plant-based foods like vegetables, fruits, herbs, nuts, beans and whole grains with moderate amounts of dairy, poultry, eggs and seafood), or avoiding a pro-inflammatory diet (deficient in fruits and vegetables and containing excessive amounts of meat, refined grain products, and dessert foods) might confer some protection against depression in observational studies3.
A healthy gut environment (microbiome) supports production of vitamins, helps train the immune system, supports cleansing of the body and helps modulate the nervous system. The microbiome can be influenced by our diet, providing the direct link between the brain and the gut, as 90% of our serotonin receptors are located in the gut. Consuming a diet rich in both prebiotics (the fiber that feeds the probiotics in our gut found in onions, leeks, asparagus, bananas and garlic) and probiotics (good bacteria that are found in fermented foods like sauerkraut, yogurt with active cultures, pickles, kefir, kimchi, kombucha) is recommended for keeping the microbiome well balanced. Probiotics are associated with a significant reduction in depression and anxiety in two recent analyses, reviewing over 30 individual studies4,5. Moreover, overconsumption on ultra-processed food leads to inflammation in the gut and might dysregulate the microbiome, possibly contributing to a plethora of diseases6.
While the field is still working through challenges to identify a clear set of biological pathways and targets that mediate the brain-gut connection, the following few simple recommendations might be helpful as complementary interventions benefiting mild to moderate depression and anxiety:
- Regulated eating habits (3 meals and 1-2 snacks/day) decrease blood sugar variations and helps stabilize moods
- Follow a diet comprising mostly of real foods (Mediterranean diet)
- Probiotic-rich foods and limiting processed food (shopping the “perimeter of the store” preferentially )supports the health of the gut-brain axis and can be beneficial for mood regulation
- LaChance LR, Ramsey D. Antidepressant foods: an evidence-based nutrient profiling system for depression. World J Psychiatry. 2018;8:97-104.
- Jacka F, O’Neil A, Opie R, et al. A randomized controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression. BMC Med. 2017;15:23.
- Lassale C, Batty GD, Baghdadli A, et al. Healthy dietary indices and risk of depression outcomes; a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Mol Psychiatry. September 26, 2018
- Ruixue Huang, Ke Wang, Jianan Hu Effect of Probiotics on Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, Nutrients 2016 Aug 6;8(8):483
- Richard T Liu, Rachel F L Walsh, Ana E Sheehan Prebiotics and probiotics for depression and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 2019 Jul;102:13-23.
- Marit K Zinöcker, Inge A LindsethThe Western Diet-Microbiome-Host Interaction and Its Role in Metabolic Disease Nutrients 2018 Mar 17;10(3):365.
Pros and Cons of TMS Therapy
Depression is common. More than 14 million American adults suffer from depression. Only a fraction of individuals suffering from depression seek treatment. Of those who do, greater than 30% fail to achieve satisfactory improvement. Not all patients improve when treated with medications or psychotherapy. Up to 25% of people suffering from depression will not respond to multiple trials of medication due to a lack of efficacy or difficulty tolerating medication. Likewise, many people struggle to respond to the best efforts of psychotherapy, either due to a lack of response or a lack of time and/or financial resources that are necessary for psychotherapy interventions. Alternate treatment modalities are critical to addressing the ongoing needs of patients who suffer from the debilitating effects of depression.
Understanding the Benefits of TMS Therapy
Depression has been linked to an abnormal function of nerve cells in a specific part of the brain. Highly focused magnetic field pulses used in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) therapy gently stimulate these nerve cells. Evidence shows that TMS is effective in the treatment of moderate to severe depression in patients with a history of treatment resistance. New data emerging from recent studies suggests that in most patients, the clinical benefits of TMS were maintained through 12 months.
How TMS Therapy Works
TMS is a non-invasive, localized treatment conducted using a device that delivers rapidly pulsating and localized magnetic fields that activate a subset of nerve cells in the front part of the brain. While treatment is administered, patients remain awake while sitting in a comfortable reclining chair. A treatment coil is applied to the head and the system generates highly concentrated magnetic field pulses. The TMS therapy is delivered in a series of 37-minute outpatient treatments, typically administered daily, (5 days per week) for 4 to 6 weeks.
Pros of TMS Therapy
- Does not require anesthesia, non-invasive, well tolerated.
- An outpatient service and patient continues normal daily routines.
- Current data demonstrates efficacy in patients who have struggled
- May be good alternative for patients who responded to ECT in past.
- No significant memory impairment.
- FDA Approved in 2008 for the treatment of depression.
Cons of TMS Therapy
- Facial twitching during the treatment.
- Skin redness at site of coil placement.
- Anxiety before and during treatment.
- Mild discomfort (usually dissipates by end of first treatment).
- Process for insurance coverage can be cumbersome.
- Time required 30 treatments over 6 weeks.
Grief During the Holidays
By Danielle J. Johnson, MD, FAPA
Lindner Center of HOPE, Chief Medical Officer
Many people have experienced loss of several types during the COVID-19 pandemic – employment, financial security, social connections, a sense of safety, and loved ones. The way we grieve has changed because we cannot rely on our support systems to be physically there for us due to restrictions with social distancing. With the increasing number of COVID-19 cases, the holiday season will be different this year – no holiday parties, large family gatherings, or other traditions. It is difficult to be physically separated from loved ones, but even more difficult for those who may be experiencing their first holiday season after the loss of a loved one.
What are some ways that we can manage grief during this unprecedented holiday season?
- Take charge of your holiday season: Anticipating anxiety about the holiday, especially if it is the first one without a loved one, can be worse than the actual holiday. Taking control of your plans and deciding how you will spend your time can relieve anxiety. Do not spend time where you do not feel emotionally safe or comfortable.
- Find nourishment for the soul: Your faith community may offer resources. Look for a support group for people who have suffered a similar loss or for those who are alone. Due to the pandemic, many support groups are online.
- Give yourself permission to change your holiday traditions: Some traditions may be a comfort, while others may be painful. Some traditions will have to change due to the pandemic. It is ok to start new traditions. Many families are finding ways to celebrate virtually.
- Change how you give: Give a gift on behalf of your loved one to someone else or donate to a charity in memory of your loved one. If you are spending less due to not spending the holidays with loved ones, consider giving more to charitable organizations.
- Do not let guilt overtake you: You can enjoy the holiday without your loved one. Celebrating does not mean you do not miss or have forgotten about your loved one.
- Be gentle with yourself: Realize that familiar traditions, sights, smells and even tastes, may be comforting, or may trigger strong emotions. Be careful with your emotions and listen to yourself.
- Do not pretend you have not experienced a loss: Imagining that nothing has happened does not make the pain of losing a loved one go away or make the holidays easier to withstand. It is ok to talk with others about what you have lost and what the holidays mean to you.
- Pay attention to your health: It is often difficult for people who have experienced a recent loss to sleep. Make sure you get regular rest. If you feel overwhelmed, talk with your health care provider.
- Experience both joy and sadness: Give yourself permission to feel happiness and pain. Do not feel like you must be a certain way because of your loss or because it is the holidays.
- Express your feelings: Suppressing your feelings may add to distress. To express your feelings, talk with a supportive friend or journal.
- How can support persons help those who are grieving during this holidays season if we cannot physically be there? Be available to listen. Send cards, gift cards for meals, offer to help shop, or decorate the outside of the home. If you are concerned about their mental wellbeing, offer to help them find a support group or encourage them to reach out to their health care provider for help.
Crisis Text Line, text CONNECT to 741741 for 24/7 help from a crisis counselor.
Ohio Care Line, call 1-800-720-9616 for 24/7 support from behavioral health professionals.
When To Seek Treatment For Anxiety
By Angela Couch, RN, MSN, PMHNP-BC
Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, Lindner Center of HOPE
Anxiety is a common symptom. Anxiety is a part of everyone’s lives, we have all experienced it to one degree or another. Believe it not, anxiety serves some useful purposes. Anxiety can help give you the drive to make a change, or complete task on time.Anxiety can activate the fight or flight instinct, in a “potentially” dangerous situation, giving you the drive to get out of there, or do something to prevent harm. Anxiety can occur when you are enduring multiple stressors, or there is uncertainty, and it’s not entirely unexpected.
For instance, say you hear layoffs are coming in the company, and you’re not sure if your department will be affected. You may experience physical symptoms of anxiety (which could include racing heart, nervous stomach, sweating, tremor, nausea, shortness of breath, and more), and you might also experience worry. COVID-19…yup, that can cause some anxiety, or worry, too! Situational anxiety is a part of life, and often can be managed by rational self-talk, problem-solving, and various positive self-care strategies. (For more on that, see some of our other recent blog articles, for lots of helpful ideas!) So how do we know when the anxiety is more than just “normal” or to be expected, and when to seek help?
According to the National Comorbidity Study Replication, about 19.1% of U.S. adults will have had an anxiety disorder in the past year, and 31.1% experience an anxiety disorder in their lifetime. In other words, it’s pretty common! There are various types of anxiety disorders, and most have an underlying common thread– difficulty in accepting uncertainty in some form. So how do you know if you may need to seek further assessment or help for anxiety, if it’s really so common? If everyone gets it, is it really a problem that requires treatment? The answer is yes, it might. Some symptoms that may indicate problematic anxiety include:
* Feeling “paralyzed” by fear.
* Anxiety is causing you to avoid things you used to be able to do without anxiety, or things that are important to you (this could include social activities, leaving your house, going to your job, driving, engaging in spiritual activities, etc.).
* You have difficulty staying present “in the moment”, which may repeatedly distract you from attending to conversations, being able to complete work or school tasks because of lack of focus.
* You are having difficulty with sleep or eating due to excessive worry or anxiety.
Anxiety is causing significant physical symptoms.
* You cannot determine a cause for the anxiety and the symptoms are persistent or very bothersome.
* You worry about “everything” or “all the time”.
* The anxiety/worry you are experiencing about situations seem excessive.
* You need to engage in compulsive or repetitive behaviors, or do things in a certain way, in order to avoid significant anxiety/worry.
* Anxiety is causing you to turn to self-medication with alcohol or substances.
So you’ve determined you should seek help, now what? Psychotherapy can be helpful for anxiety, and is a very important component of treatment. Psychotherapy may include several modalities such as cognitive behavioral therapy, addressing faulty beliefs contributing to anxiety, psychoeducation about anxiety and worry, problem-solving, exercise and wellness activities/lifestyle changes, addressing sleep hygiene, skills for time management and stress reduction, or exposure therapy, just to name a few.
How do you know if psychotherapy is enough to manage the symptoms? Medication can be a helpful component in treatment of anxiety, particularly if symptoms are not improving with other psychotherapeutic interventions mentioned above. Medications alone are rarely enough to treat anxiety disorders adequately. Medication can often make it easier to engage in meaningful psychotherapy, to make those helpful lifestyle changes, or try new ways of coping with the anxiety/worry. If you are experiencing suicidal thinking or significant depression, medication should be a consideration. If the anxiety symptoms are preventing you from being able to work or do other essential tasks, medication may be indicated. If your therapist suggests a medication consultation, you should consider it.
The important things to remember are, everyone has some anxiety, not all anxiety is bad, and when anxiety does become problematic or excessive, there are evidence-based treatments to help, so don’t be afraid to reach out for help!
Can you blueberry your way out of depression? The evidence on dietary supplements
By Nicole Mori, RN, MSN, APRN-BC
Research Advanced Practice Nurse, Lindner Center of HOPE
Depression is a common mental health complaint. Although there are effective treatments available, many patients fail to experience satisfactory improvement. There has been increased interest in nutritional supplements as an adjunct or alternative to medications in the treatment of depression. This has contributed to the growth of the dietary supplement industry (projected to reach 230 billion by 2026). Let’s examine the evidence for the dietary supplements that have generated interest in recent years.
Omega-3 fatty acids (EPA/DHA)
A systematic review shows mild-moderate improvement in depressive symptoms, with the best outcomes in studies where omega-3 supplementation is concomitant to standard antidepressant therapy. There is a great deal of heterogeneity in dosing, duration of treatment and EPA/DHA content. Products with a high EPA content appear to be more efficacious than other omega-3 supplements. However, quality of evidence is low due to methodological flaws. Differences in study design and methodology makes it difficult to analyze data across studies. Omega-3 supplements have a favorable safety profile and are well tolerated.
B group vitamins
Folate- Possible dose dependent response in depression but level of evidence is low. Although folate is well tolerated, it has been associated with risk for proliferation of carcinogenic cells in the colon.
L-methylfolate-Available as pharmaceutical product FDA approved for depression. Data shows efficacy at 15mg/d. Some studies show efficacy as augmentation strategy for depression as comparable to lithium and atypical antipsychotics. Usually well tolerated with lower risk for proliferation of cancerous cells than folate.
A 2019 systematic review of clinical trials showed improvement in depression ratings associated with supplementation. Findings remain tentative due to paucity of studies and methodologic bias. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin commonly found in multivitamins and other commercially available products. In the absence of a deficiency, the recommended dose is not to exceed 600IU/day.
SAM-E (S-Adenosyl methionine)
Clinical trials show mixed results. A 2016 systematic review suggested SAM-E was no better than placebo. The low quality of evidence makes it difficult to draw conclusions about efficacy. There is a need for randomized clinical trials with antidepressant comparators. SAM-E usually well tolerated but there is a possible risk for inducing mania in patients with bipolar depression.
There are few high quality studies of 5-HTP. Two depression studies suggest 5-HTP is superior to placebo. Overall, level of evidence is low. Possible risk for serotonin syndrome when administered concurrently with SSRI antidepressants. Maximum recommended dose is 50mg/kg/day.
Magnesium and Zinc
There is some positive data from animal studies but evidence for efficacy in humans is low quality. There is no conclusive data on the efficacy of magnesium and zinc as coadjutant therapy in depression. Zinc and magnesium are common micronutrients and usually well tolerated.
Depression has been associated with poor diet and altered intestinal flora. Research has shown a relationship between gut health and mental health. A 2016 metaanalysis of probiotics showed an effect in reducing risk of depression in normal subjects and reduced symptoms in subjects with depression. The effect was limited to subjects under age 60. Clinical studies vary greatly in terms of bacterial species, dose, duration of treatment as well as the method of measuring of depressive symptoms. Probiotic supplements are vastly heterogeneous in terms of species composition and dosage.
There is a need for further research to determine optimal composition, dosage, duration of treatment for efficacy. Furthermore, it is important to remember that quality of diet is a major determinant in the composition of gut flora.
In conclusion, evidence for the efficacy of dietary supplements in depression remains limited. Commercially available dietary supplements vary significantly in terms of composition and bioavailability. Although supplements are well tolerated, it is important to be aware of increased risks for adverse events in some patients. Supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids as an adjunct to standard antidepressant therapy seems to hold the most promise. Further research in the area of dietary supplements is needed to determine their role in the management of depression.
For more information about Depression research studies at the Lindner Center of HOPE
call 513-536-0707 or visit https://lindnercenterofhope.org/research/
Firth J, Teasdale SB, Allott K, et al. The efficacy and safety of nutrient supplements in the treatment of mental disorders: a meta-review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. World Psychiatry. 2019;18(3):308-324. doi:10.1002/wps.20672
Martínez-Cengotitabengoa M, González-Pinto A. Nutritional supplements in depressive disorders. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2017;45(Supplement):8-15.
Am I shopping too much?
|By Jessica Kraft, APRN, PMHNP-BC, Psychiatric Mental-Health Nurse Practitioner, Lindner Center of HOPE|
Everyone needs to shop from time to time, but at what point does shopping become a problem? And is this a diagnosis? Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is a mental health condition characterized by “excessive, impulsive, and uncontrollable purchase of products in spite of severe psychological, social, occupational and financial consequences”. While this diagnosis is not found in the DSM-V, shopping addiction was described and discussed clinically in the early 20th century by Bleuler and Kraepelin (Black, 2007). There is still much to be learned about the causes of CBD or shopping addiction, but several factors thought to be contributing include materialism, social anxiety, a general lack of social support, loneliness, or trauma history (Harnish, Bridges, Gump, & Carson, 2018). It is not uncommon for those with CBD to also struggle with anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders, or disorders of impulse control.
Most consumers of goods take value and usefulness into consideration when making a decision about a
purchase and emotion is not often involved in the decision. This has also been referred to as “utilitarian shopping”, where someone only shops when they need something. Those who struggle with CBD more often make purchases in order to improve their mood, cope with stress, gain social approval, or improve their self-esteem. This has been referred to as “hedonic shopping” where the primary purpose of shopping is for entertainment, distraction, or pleasure. Research has shown that CBD has relation to reward sensitivity and the mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in the brain (Günüç & Doğan Keskin, 2016). Over time this behavior becomes reinforced and can create a pattern similar to those seen with behavioral addictions like gambling, sexual addiction, or internet addiction (Granero et al., 2016).
Some might think that during a global pandemic with economic uncertainty people would be less likely to spend and work towards curbing unhealthy shopping impulses. For some who struggle with CBD, this isn’t necessarily the case. With the emphasis and ease of online ordering and curbside pick-up options combined with the increased stress that many are feeling related to the pandemic, coping with shopping addiction has been more challenging for some. This year credit and debit card use increased by 79% in May compared to April in New Zealand. As shops reopened in Australia over the summer there were “Christmas size crowds”. A recent study in the UK showed that those with underlying mental health conditions (primarily depression and anxiety) were more likely to resort to “panic buying” or compulsive buying in response to the pandemic (Jaspal, Lopes, & Lopes, 2020). Considering that loneliness is a contributing factor to compulsive buying as well as the need to cope with stress it really isn’t very surprising that the pandemic has exacerbated these unhealthy buying behaviors in those who struggle with CBD.
What are the symptoms of CBD?
- Urges to make a purchase are strong and the act of purchasing creates a “high” feeling
- Preoccupation with shopping or planning purchases
- Making a trip to the store and purchasing more items than originally intended
- Most purchases made are unnecessary items
- Debt, maxed out credit cards, or spending beyond one’s means
- Hiding purchased items from family members or friends due to guilt
- Feeling unable to stop oneself from shopping or making unnecessary purchases
What can you do to decrease urges to shop?
- Seek professional help. While there are few evidence-based treatments for CBD there has been interest and anecdotal success with antidepressants (SSRIs), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and habit reversal training (HRT)
- Join a support group or surround yourself with understanding and supportive people
- When feeling the urge to purchase something make yourself wait a minimum of 24-hours
- Declutter your space, organize, and get a better idea of what you have and what you love
- Identify and avoid triggering situations – for example, unsubscribe from e-mails from your favorite stores if this has led you to make unnecessary and impulsive purchases in the past
- Be mindful of who you follow on social media and how this influences your shopping behaviors
- When looking at an advertisement ask yourself what they are trying to sell you and how this makes you feel about yourself. For instance, does this company benefit financially from you feeling badly about yourself or wanting a different lifestyle?
Black, D. W. (2007). A review of compulsive buying disorder. World Psychiatry, 6(1), 14-18. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1805733/#B1
Granero, R., Fernández-Aranda, F., Mestre-Bach, G., Steward, T., Baño, M., del Pino-Gutiérrez, A., … Jiménez-Murcia, S. (2016). Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(914). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00914
Günüç, S., & Doğan Keskin, A. (2016). Online Shopping Addiction: Symptoms, Causes and Effects. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 3(3). https://doi.org/10.15805/addicta.2016.3.0104
Harnish, R. J., Bridges, K. R., Gump, J. T., & Carson, A. E. (2018). The Maladaptive Pursuit of Consumption: the Impact of Materialism, Pain of Paying, Social Anxiety, Social Support, and Loneliness on Compulsive Buying. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-9883-y
Jaspal, R., Lopes, B., & Lopes, P. (2020). Predicting social distancing and compulsive buying behaviours in response to COVID-19 in a United Kingdom sample. Cogent Psychology, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2020.1800924
Gratitude During a Pandemic
Tuning into the news can be a stressful and anxiety provoking experience, even in the best of times. During a pandemic, it can be downright frightening. If all of this negativity is wreaking havoc on your emotions, maybe it’s time to put your energy into building a Gratitude Practice.
Gratitude is the conscious decision to focus attention on the positive aspects of a situation and to notice feelings of joy, appreciation and thankfulness. It is a mindset that celebrates all of the wonderful, special, and unique gifts that life has to offer every day, no matter how simple.
When the world pressures us to pay attention to things that are hurtful, dangerous or missing in our lives, it can be especially challenging to maintain a mindset of gratitude and appreciation. This year especially has brought many unforeseen challenges to us all. Cultivating a mindset of gratitude can be accomplished even in these difficult times.
Over the last several decades there have been numerous studies that have shown countless positive effects of practicing gratitude on our emotional, social and physical health. Practicing gratitude has been shown to improve mood, and help reduce depression, anxiety and irritability. Regular practitioners of gratitude are likely to feel happier, more peaceful and do kinder things for others.
Those who practice gratitude may have stronger social relationships. Couples who regularly express gratitude to each other feel their partners are more responsive to their needs and are overall more satisfied with their relationship. This extends to the workplace as well. When gratitude is expressed at work, employees improve their felt sense of self-worth and confidence, leading to an increase in trust between colleagues and more initiative to help one another out.
Physically, people who practice gratitude regularly have a host of positive effects including improved sleep, stronger immune systems, more consistent exercise habits, fewer physical symptoms and better progress towards achieving personal goals. This is especially important in the current climate.
The act of being grateful creates a chain reaction: the more positive things you notice and give thanks for, the better you feel. As you feel better, you are likely to seek out more positive experiences for which to be thankful.
Building a Gratitude Practice
There are many ways that you can begin to incorporate more gratitude into your life. Remember that when making any change in behavior, it is best to start small and gradually build over time.
If you are just starting out, try choosing one or two times per day that you devote to being grateful. You might consider as you are falling asleep each night to think of three things that happened during that day that you are thankful for. You could also try to think of the one thing you are most grateful for. Try to be as specific as possible. Instead of saying to yourself “I am grateful for my family” think …“I am grateful my husband cleaned up the kitchen after dinner.” Or “I am grateful that my son gave me a hug before bed.”
Once you have practiced that, you might want to upgrade to a Gratitude Journal. You can spend 5-10 minutes each night or first thing in the morning, reflecting on all of the things in your life you appreciate. The act of writing it down helps to solidify in your mind the memories and experiences.
Consider incorporating your family into the practice. When sitting down to meals, ask your family members one thing that happened today that they each feel grateful for. We tend to do this before Thanksgiving dinner, but we can also do this as we sit down with our take-out pizza. Before falling asleep, tell your partner something about him or her that you value and appreciate.
Lastly, find opportunities in your day to express your appreciation for others. Consider sending an email to a colleague when you overhear a positive comment or compliment about them. A text with a thank you or heart emoji only takes five seconds but can brighten someone’s morning.
Remember that gratitude is not the same as denial or wearing rose colored glasses. It does not dismiss or deny the very real things that are not ‘ok’ in our society. Instead, gratitude helps us to collectively notice and appreciate the beauty, the kindness, the love that surrounds us every day. Sharing our gratitude allows us to work together to find solutions and to maintain hope in the face of adversity.
Practicing a grateful mindset can be challenging at first, especially when there are so many messages of negativity around us. Over time and with intention, building your gratitude practice can bring just a little more peace and joy to your world.
By Laurie Little, PsyD, Director of Therapeutic Services, Residential, Lindner Center of HOPE
How to Treat Psychosis with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp)
Many think that psychosis cannot be targeted with cognitive behavioral therapy, but that is not the case. There is a specific form of therapy that was developed for psychosis called CBTp. One important point to mention is that the symptoms are only targeted when they are distressing to the client and they interfere with their functioning or safety, not because one believes them to be untrue or abnormal. The main tenet is to join with the client and build rapport while not directly challenging their psychosis, which is referred to as working within their belief system. Once this is established, gradually helping them think differently about some of their experiences or beliefs is possible, but not in all cases. In some cases, the therapy is used to help them live their life and meet their goals in spite of their experiences or beliefs.
One useful technique with this therapy is to help them feel less stigmatized and normalize some of their experiences. There are specific websites out there that detail stories and list famous people out there who have struggled with psychosis, which can be very helpful for the client to read about. One such website is intervoiceonline.org.
Another very practical technique is helping them set smart and realistic goals. This can be done by asking what their goals are and developing a shared goal that can be accomplished. For example instead of “wanting the voices to stop” a smart goal could be “by the fourth session I will have learned and used two different coping strategies that reduce how much distress the voices cause from 100% to 75%”.
Other strategies that CBTp utilizes are coping strategy enhancement. First you figure out what they already are using to cope and figure out if they need to be refined or improved. Helping them figure out the time of day to use these strategies is important. They are likely to be most helpful when their voices are triggered, such as certain times of the day, a specific place, a certain smell, or certain feeling. Some strategies that can be useful to use before their voices are triggered include progressive muscle relaxation, deep breathing, and practicing mindfulness of the present moment such as identifying things in the room. Strategies that can be helpful once the voices are already triggered include: using an ipod and listening to a feel good songs playlist; playing the look, point and name; using sub vocal speech or singing under one’s breath which can interrupt the voices; focusing on voices (hearing out in order to change relationship with voice); entering into dialogue with them, and setting specific times for listening to voices.
When targeting voices in sessions, there are several main goals. One is to help the client understand how their beliefs and thoughts relate to the voices and influence their feelings, mood, and coping. Another is to help them identify their beliefs about their voices. Helping
them explore evidence for and against their distressing beliefs is important. One can also develop behavioral experiments to test out the reality of their belief. Helping them generate alternative explanations and thoughts about their voices is also helpful. Providing behavioral interventions to reduce distress associated with their voices is key as well. Lastly, helping them change their relationship to their voices is important.
As you can see, there are many strategies that can be useful for this presenting problem.
The key it to present it in a way that is collaborative with the client and doing so in a trusting professional relationship. Meeting the client where they are at is important. It is also helpful to keep in mind that these techniques take some time to work and for the client to be able to use them, so patience is key as well.
Nicole Bosse, PsyD
Staff Psychologist, Lindner Center of HOPE
Recent advances in the neuroscience of youth’s brain development and screen time exposure
Screen time recommendations vary by the child’s age. Presently, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that for children younger than 18 months of age, the use of screen media other than video-chatting should mostly be discouraged. For children 2 to 5 years of age screens are acceptable for no more than one hour per day thus allowing them ample time to engage in other activities promoting growth. For older children, current guidelines encourage proactive development of an individualized Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that takes in consideration the particular child’s maturation and needs. This article will focus on a few recent neurobiological findings addressing the effects of excessive screen time exposure on the growing brain in youth to help us be better informed as parents, educators and healthcare workers.
Preschoolers – if the content is educational, that’s all that matters, not how it is presented, right? Wrong!
In a 2019 study by Cincinnati Children’s Hospital researchers documented associations between higher screen use and lower measures of brain structure and skills in preschool-aged children. The team examined the screen time habits and cognitive skills of 47 children, 3 to 5 years of age and conducted brain scans on each child. Prior to the scans, the kids took a cognitive test and the parents filled out a questionnaire regarding their child’s screen time habits. The final score, called the ScreenQ score, was based on a number of criteria focusing on AAP recommendations, including whether the child was exposed to screens before 18 months of age, if they had a television in their room, and how much time they spend in front of screens. Scores ranged from zero to 26 and the higher scores represented less of an adherence to general screen time recommendations from the AAP. It was observed that higher ScreenQ scores were associated with lower brain white matter integrity, poorer expressive language and poorer cognitive skills suggesting that excessive time in front of a screen, even if the content is considered educational, might decrease cognitive skills in preschoolers. (1)
Elementary School Age and tweens -Reading is all good, right? Wrong!
A 2018 study from Cincinnati Children’s Hospital explored the time spent using screen-based media versus reading an actual book on the functional connectivity of the reading-related brain regions in children aged 8-12. Time spent on screens might be linked to impaired shifts in brain connectivity, while reading a book is linked to more beneficial neurobiological changes. The researchers had families rate how much time their children spent on various screens and how much time they spent reading actual books. The children’s brains were scanned, to assess how regions involved in language were connected, and it turned out that screen time was linked to poorer connectivity in areas that govern language and cognitive control. Reading a physical book, on the other hand, was linked to better connectivity in these regions. These findings underscore the importance of children reading real books to support healthy brain development and literacy and to consider limiting excessive screen time, even if some of the content presented through screens might be related to reading and considered educational. (2)
Tweens- screens are all bad, right? Wrong!
A 2019 study published in NeuroImage explored the effect of screen media activity on structural brain changes and how this might affect specific behaviors in 9-11 year olds. Structural scans of the brains of 4277 participants were correlated to screen activity like watching television, playing video games, or using social media. Some finding were expected, like individuals with significant exposure to activities engaging the visual system (watching TV or video) showing structural patterns suggestive of greater maturation in the visual system (i.e., thinner cortex). Some structural brain changes related to increased screen exposure were associated with more psychological issues and poorer performance on cognitive tests, while other latent variables did not show such relationship. The authors summarized that it remains difficult to conclude that brain structural characteristics related to screen media activity have uniformly negative consequences. Moreover, while some media activity associated brain structural changes were related to poorer cognitive performance, others were related to better cognitive performance suggesting that screen media activity can not be simplified as overarchingly “bad for the brain or for brain related functioning”.
Regardless of the age group discussed, one strategy to mitigate the potential risks associated with excessive exposure to screens is to ensure that the child has an overall well balanced and healthy lifestyle. This includes reinforcing proper eating and sleeping habits adequate for the age of the child, sufficient and diverse physical activity and providing plenty of opportunities for not screen related social interactions. Establishing a flexible family matrix of screen rated “rules” which dynamically adapts to the growing child would ensure that parents and educators factor in screen time exposure as one of the determinants when raising a healthy kid.
- John S. Hutton, Jonathan Dudley, Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Tom DeWitt, Scott K. Holland.
Associations Between Screen-Based Media Use and Brain White Matter Integrity in
Preschool-Aged Children. JAMA Pediatrics, 2019.
- Horowitz-Kraus T, Hutton JS. Brain connectivity in children is increased by the time they spend reading books and decreased by the length of exposure to screen-based media. Acta Paediatr. 2018;107(4):685-693.
- Paulus MP, Squeglia LM, Bagot K, et al. Screen media activity and brain structure in youth:
Evidence for diverse structural correlation networks from the ABCD study. Neuroimage. 2019;
Anna Guerdjikova, PHD, LISW, CCRC
Director of Administrative Services, Harold C. Schott Foundation Eating Disorders Program, Lindner Center of HOPE, University of Cincinnati, Department of Psychiatry, Research Assistant Professor